Sunday, May 24, 2020

Conversion of Alcohol to Alkyl Halides Essay - 2563 Words

Conversion of Alcohols to Alkyl Halides Ankita Patel August 6, 2013 Introduction This lab consisted of the conversion of alcohols into alkyl halides through common substitution methods. These methods include SN1 and SN2 mechanism, both of which can occur for this type of reaction. For both reactions, the first step of protonation will be to add hydrogen to the –OH group and then the rest of the reaction will proceed according to the type of mechanism. SN1 reactions form a cation intermediate once the H2O group leaves, then allowing a halide (such as Br) to attack the positively charged reagent1. On the other hand, SN2 reactions are one-step mechanism in which no intermediate is formed and the halide attaches as the leaving†¦show more content†¦Thus, one could safely assume the product from 1-propanol was 1-bromopropane. This is mainly due the C-H wag around 1260cm-1 indication it was a terminal alkyl halide. This reaction went through SN2 mechanism not only because the alcohol was primary but also because there were no rearrangeme nts. If a rearrangement would have occurred, it would have indicated that it was a SN1 mechanism. Further analysis was then done to determine the exact identity of the product and the chemical makeup. B B C C A A B B C C A A Figure 2: NMR Spectrum for 1-propanol The results from the NMR of 1-propanol showed 3 different prominent peaks with the peak at 2.2 cm-1 being the acetone. Because 1-bromopropane has three non-equivalent hydrogens it was found to represent this set of NMR data. The other product, 2-bromopropane only had 2 different types of hydrogens and would have only had 2 peaks. Further analysis of the structure of 1-bromopropane showed that the hydrogens closest the bromine group were an indication of peak A in the graph. Because of the electronegativity of the bromine, this peak was located further downfield. There were 2 neighboring hydrogens so using the n+1 rule gave the 3 peaks. Going down peak B showed the next carbon which had 5 neighboring hydrogens thus giving 6 peaks. Finally, the carbon furthest away from the bromine was found at peak C. It had 2 neighboring hydrogens and provided 3 peaks.Show MoreRelatedConversion of Alcohol to Alkyl Halides716 Words   |  3 PagesIntroduction In this experiment, Conversion of Alcohol to Alkyl Halides and alcohol is converted to an alkyl halide through SN1 or an SN2 mechanism. This is done by using 1-propanol and 2-pentantol with HBr, Hydrobromic acid. Only half of the groups will use 1-propanol, and 2-pentantol. All results are analyzed using NMR and IR. An SN1 reaction, requires two steps. The first step, using an alcohol as an reactant, is the pronation of the –OH group from the R group. This produces a cation intermediateRead MoreConversions of Alcohols to Alkyl Halides1355 Words   |  5 PagesConversions of Alcohols to Alkyl Halides: 1-Propanol and 2-Pentanol Introduction One way scientist gets alkyl halides is by using the manipulation of an alcohol. When alcohols are treated with HBr or HCl; they can undergo a nucleophile substation reaction to generate an alkyl halide and water2. Using the structure of the alcohols they are able to use SN1 or SN2 mechanisms. For both these mechanisms though, the –OH group must be pronated shown in Figure 1. R—OH + H—Br + R—OH2 +Br- FigureRead MoreAlcohol and Ir Spectrum1937 Words   |  8 PagesConversion of Alcohols to Alkyl Halides Title: Conversion of Alcohols to Alkyl Halides Abstract: In this experiment the conversion of alcohols to alkyl halides are investigated through reflux and simple distillation. These are common procedures used to separate substances. After the reflux and distillation is complete 13C NMR and IR spectrum is used to identify the product or products for each reaction: 1a, 1b, and 2. Every individual in the group was assigned either 1a (1-propanol) or 1b (2-pentanol)Read MoreNaming Alcohols in Chemistry1662 Words   |  7 Pages an alcohol is in the hydroxyl functional group (-OH) is bound to a carbon atom. In particular, this carbon center should be saturated, having single bonds to three other atoms. Important alcohols are the simple acyclic alcohols. Of those, ethanol (C2H5OH) is the type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages, and in common speech the word alcohol refers specifically to ethanol. When it comes to alcohol reactions the functional group of the alcohols is the hydroxyl group –OH. Unlike the alkyl halidesRead MoreDiscussion and Conclusion: Preparation of 1-Bromobutane1035 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿ Discussion and Conclusion: Preparation of 1-Bromobutane The purpose of this experiment was to demonstrate the conversion of a primary alcohol, 1-butanol, to a primary bromoalkane, 1-bromobutane, a SN2 reaction. The conversion of 1-butanol to 1-bromobutane relies on sulfuric acid which plays two important roles. First, it protonates the alcohol of 1-butanol to form an oxonium ion which is a good leaving group. Secondly, it produces the hydrobromic acid, the nucleophile, which attacks 1-butanolRead MorePreparation of 1-Bromobutane from 1-Butanol by Sn2 Reaction2275 Words   |  10 Pagesfrom 1-butanol by SN2 reaction Objective: 1. To study the preparation of 1-bromobutane from 1-butanol by an SN2 reaction 2. To study the method of purification of an organic compound by simple extraction 3. To study the test of identification of alkyl halide Chemicals and Apparatus: ~18.0 g 1-butanol, ~20.0 g sodium bromide, 15 ml of concentrated sulfuric acid, anhydrous magnesium sulfate, ~10 ml of 5% aqueous sodium bicarbonate, ~1 ml of sodium iodide – acetone reagent, 1 ml of bromine in chloroformRead MoreRing Contraction Of A Ring1556 Words   |  7 Pageshydroxide, to yield a carboxylic acid but most of the time either an alkoxide base or an amine to yield an ester or an amide.2. and 5. This rearrangement proceeds through a carbanion which attacks an endocyclic carbon and expels a leaving group (a halide) forming a bicyclic molecule with rings smaller than the original substrate.4 The bicycle is then opened by nucleophilic attack on the ketone to give the contracted product.4 Scheme 2: A Typical Favorskii Rearrangement20 Scheme 3: A typical Favorskii

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Adventures of an Indian Princess, Analysis Essay - 861 Words

John Fassero, Ethnic Studies 151, Fall 2013 Professor Duane Bigeagle Analysis of â€Å"Adventures of an Indian Princess†, By Patricia Riley The feelings and emotions that make this a powerful and thought-provoking story on stereotyping and general ethnic insensitivity are carried primarily as the author provides you with the internal narrative dialogue and careful observation of a young Cherokee girl named Arletta. Much is communicated without a spoken word by her throughout the essay. Much is said in a one sentence reply to her foster mother at the close of the story. As the central character and protagonist, Arletta finds herself sandwiched between her foster sisters on a car trip, with Jackson Rapier at the helm and wife by†¦show more content†¦Arletta is immediately unimpressed when greeted by what is a mascot of a Cherokee Indian chief, wearing a cacophony of different tribal wardrobe items, nothing of which being Cherokee. Indeed, the hot sun confirms the masquerade as it melts the brown makeup which seems to form a war stripe to do battle with the entire Cherokee nation culture. This all amounts to an insult to her intelligence and cultural identity, but through her own sense of survival, she wisely thinks through the situation and manages to retain a sense of placidity. She clearly demonstrated this character trait when literally pushed to the side of this mascot Indian Trading post chief for a ‘pitcher’, to cope she simply mashes her teeth with a visible grimace. But she does retain her dignity nonetheless by not complying with the ‘clever’ demands by Jackson Rapier to say ‘Cherokee’ during the photo shoot. This ability to think beyond the immediate circumstances is present throughout Arletta’s dreadful adventure to the trading post. The inspiration for the title element â€Å"Indian Princess† came when Mrs. Rapier reacts to her husband’s photo opportunity with the trading post chief, noting that she resembled an Indian Princess further establishes the RapiersShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of Book Around The World 1402 Words   |  6 Pagesyears old with light brown hair and a beard. He lives a quiet life of regularity in London. Being independently wealthy, he spends most of his day in the Reform Club reading, taking his meals, and playing whist. Having lived a life of travel and adventure some years earlier, he is a man of honor and integrity. Mr. Fogg is also considered an eccentric and enigmatic person with a calm, unruffled demeanor. His rationality, generosity, and self-control impressed some characters throughout the book. Antagonist:Read MoreHamleys Positioning7707 Words   |  31 Pagesyears gave shape to the creative fancies and dreams of young ones and grow-ups alike. Once upon a time, toys were given away as wedding presents to the child bride. Today, toys not only provide a diversion but also a colorful canvas for depicting Indian life in its plethora of cultural beauties. The world market has seen various upheavals due to changing consumer preferences, new fads, technological advances and trade liberalization. Countries like China have marveled the world with theirRead MoreCase on the Disney Brand14200 Words   |  57 PagesKey Words: Brand Extension, Expansion into New Geographies. Brand Culture, Brand Symbols, Semiotics Analysis. Study of ‘Disney’: Strategies and factors that helped build the iconic brand. Group 7 Archana Menon 2008 09 A Chandan Pansari 2008 12 A Ranjani Mani 2008 43 A Sumita Das 2008 55 A INDEX Introduction ..........................................................................................................................4 Licensing ..............................................Read MoreTourism Development Planning Essays3073 Words   |  13 Pagestourism industry. By being stakeholders of following sectors, the stakeholders can benefit. The sectors are: * Accommodation (luxurious boutique resorts, apartment villas, chain hotels, motels, pack backers). * Recreational activities (outdoor adventures, game fishing, scuba diving, paragliding, kite surfing, trekking) * Inter-island cruises (Efate offshore islands and Santo offshore islands). * Attraction (eco-tourism, adventurous and cultural products, pristine marine environment). AsRead MoreWalt-Disney World Internship Report7881 Words   |  32 PagesManagement in Disney —Making Guests’ Dreams Come True 19 4 Chapter 3 Suggestions for Macau Hotel and Resort Industry 22 3.1 3.2 3.2.1 3.2.2 Macau Tourism Situation 22 Macau Hotel and Resort 23 Situation of Hotel and Resort Section 23 SWOT Analysis of Hotel and Resort Section 24 Strength 25 Weakness 26 S W O T 3.2.3 Opportunity 27 Threat 27 27 Improvement Suggestions Combine the MICE industry with hotel and resort industry 27 ImproveRead MoreThe Walt Disney Company Report15335 Words   |  62 Pageswith university honor code in completion of this assignment and I attest that this work is ours and ours alone.† Professor Suzanne Weiss Contents 1. Executive Summary 2. Company Background 3. Management 4. Situation Analysis 5. Ethics and Responsibility 6. Human Resource 7. Globalization 8. Operation and Production 9. Finance and Financial Management 10. Hypothetical Request for Venture Capitalist 11. Conclusion and Recommendation 12. CitationRead MoreThe Disillusionment of American Dream in Great Gatsby and Tender Is the Night19485 Words   |  78 Pagesenjoy, use once and throw away, in order to buy a later and more expensive model. Young men and women of Fitzgerald’s time were the group feeling the changes as soon as possible. They took adventures that didn’t impress them as being risks because, in their hearts, they believed in the happy ending of any adventure. They were truly rebellious because they celebrated the value of simple experiences such as love, foreign travel, good food, and drunkenness. The masculine ideal of the 1920s was what FitzgeraldRead MoreReview Of Charlotte Bronte s Jane Eyre 10879 Words   |  44 Pagesschool what had asthma,’† said the fat boy with a touch of pride. â€Å"And I’ve been wearing specs since I was three’† (9). Stubborn â€Å"‘It was an accident,’ said Piggy stubbornly, ‘and that’s that’† (157). Logical â€Å"Which is better—to be a pack of painted Indians like you are, or to be sensible like Ralph is?... Which is better—to have rules and agree, or to hunt and kill?... Which is better, law and rescue, or hunting and breaking things up?† (180). â€Å"The first thing we ought to have made was shelters downRead MoreIgbo Dictionary129408 Words   |  518 Pagespalatalized consonant. It is not, however, a conclusive argument against the /b/ plus /y/ interpretation, for it can be argued that only the first consonant of a cluster is reduplicated. 3. The palatalized consonant solution draws a parallel with the analysis of kw, gw, etc., as single labialized consonants. But their behaviour is not parallel; thus á »â€¹kwà   (to push) has the imperative kwà  a (and not *kà ¹Ã¯â‚¬ ¨a) and the gerund à ²Ã¯â‚¬ ¤kwà ¹Ã¯â‚¬ ¨kwà   (and not *à ²Ã¯â‚¬ ¤kà ¹Ã¯â‚¬ ¨kwà  ). Again, this is not an argument against the cluster interpretation

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Essay on the May 4th Movement Free Essays

Geoffrey Lee 6. 16 Macedonia History Essay To what extent do you agree with the assertion that May 4th 1919 was one of the most significant dates in Chinese history. The May 4th movement in 1919 was a significant date in Chinese history to a very large extent. We will write a custom essay sample on Essay on the May 4th Movement or any similar topic only for you Order Now This essay will attempt to justify this claim by explaining the short-term effects of the M4M and more importantly the long-term effects. The year 1919 is a significant year as it was the year right after World War 1 (WW1) had ended; hence many war-settlement treaties were signed. One of these would be the Treaty of Versailles (TOV) which involved China. The M4M was a movement that had begun from the rise of sentiments of democracy and nationalism. Previously, China had been ruled by a single ruler where traditional culture and Confucianism dominated the nation. However after WW1 and the influx of western ideas and ideologies, thus many youth in China begin to call for a demolition of the previous culture and Confucianism, and to replace it with a new culture and direction. This movement was headed by large forms of mass advertising through the use of the New Youth and many other magazines. This increase of national sentiments led to the Chinese demanding that their government to oppose the Japanese 21 demands on Yuan Shikai’s government and it also saw the emergence of the new merchants and labour class. With all these demonstrations and national sentiments, China was in a period of disorder and lawlessness, which was similar to that during the warlord era in the 1800s. In the short-term, the M4M was a significant date in Chinese history to a small extent as it resulted in many strikes and demonstrations throughout China to occur. Students demonstrated in the capital of Beijing while many other occupants such as shopkeepers, industrial workers and other urban employees joined in the strikes and demonstrated in other key cities in China such as in Shanghai. The demonstration also saw a nationwide boycott of Japanese goods in an attempt to show Yuan Shikai to reject the Japanese demands to make China a Japanese protectorate. Also, the government of China was forced into rejecting the terms of the TOV which angered the West. This resulted in massive violence throughout the nation which did the Chinese no good and it aggravated ties between China and the West. In the long-term, the M4M was a significant date in Chinese history to a very large extent as it resulted not only in many cultural changes, but most importantly; it changed the political scene in China. The M4M gave birth to political activism where the people called for the end of a single ruler, but instead to have a democratic government. This surge of political activism was propelled by the education of the youths who believed that they would transform China. The youths emphasized heavily on the destruction of China’s traditional culture which was based on Confucianism, and they assumed that Western thought and civilisation was the way forward. This led to the reorganisation of the Guomindang (GMD) which saw Sun Yatsen calling on the Soviet Union. This also led to the founding of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). The CCP was founded as a result of the increased appeal of Marxism-Leninism, which proved to be very successful in the Soviet Union. These 2 political groups would later take over the whole of the Chinese political scene and would later oppose one another in their attempt to dominate the Chinese government, which would result in massive killings of one another. However these 2 parties would combine forces during the World War 2 (WW2) period to fight off the Japanese imperialism which ensured that China would not fall into the hands of the Japanese. Hence this proved that the M4M was indeed a significant date in the history of China to the largest extent. In conclusion, it can be agreed that the M4M was one of the most significant dates in the history of China simply due to the fact that it was through the M4M that both the GMD underwent a massive reform, and at the same time, the birth of the CCP was witnessed. The combination of these 2 factors proved to be significant as without the formation of either party, China would have suffered much more detrimentally in WW2 as it was only through the surge of nationalism of the Chinese, and the combined forces of the GMD and the CCO that China managed to fight off the Japanese. How to cite Essay on the May 4th Movement, Essays

Monday, May 4, 2020

HSC Environment Health-Summary

Question: Describe about the HSC for Environment Health-Summary. Answer: The chosen article in this essay is the food crisis across Africa. In southern Malawi, the celebration starts at the time of harvesting. Unfortunately, from last week, they have nothing to celebrate as they had picked their little maize crop. The last year's drought along with erratic rains entered into the Nkhotakota village. But there is no view of even rain ion this year also. The stores of grains in the families are getting empty. If the families over there manage to eat a small portion of meal in a day, then also they will be left out with food for two more months (Robertson Hansen, 2015). The Irish charity Concern has commented that more than ten thousand families are running out of the food. There is no chance of harvesting at least for seven months. They are left out with no money, and they don't have anything to sell. The children are getting admitted to the hospital due to malnutrition. This crisis has appeared due to the El Nino weather event, which hit Latin America, much of India, and parts of Southeast Asia since 1982. But the worst situation with warm water in equatorial Pacific is observed in southern Africa. United Nations is shocked from this situation. More than 7.9m tonnes of food and $650m are needed to save this critical condition. Swaziland, Angola, Madagascar, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Lesotho, Mozambique, and Malawi have already declared national emergency. The Even situation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Botswana is very critical. President Robert Mugabe has requested to buy $ 1.5 bn food for Malawi and Zimbabwe. As more than 8 million people are in food crisis over there (Peakall Shugart, 2013). At present 31 million people are in need of food which is expected to increase to 49 million by Christmas. It is tough to feed these many people as there is no guarantee of money or food supply. 50 markets are getting monitored for this. But the rate of the food is very high. Only nearby Zambia has the better harvest to share. But by the time food will reach to the point, the situation will be worst. The International countries are coming together for help. According to International Development Minister, Britain will take the leadership in this help. The support will not be provided by money, as there is the high chance of corruption. So the support will be provided through food-for-work schemes, medical aid, and food vouchers, etc. (Nieuwenhuijsen, 2015). According to the researchers, it is estimated that the situation will be deteriorated by April 2017. According to WMO, it is also estimated that there is 50:50 chance of hitting by La Nina, the twin of El Nino. It is developing in the Pacific Ocean right after El Nino. Contractually, heavier monsoon can come due to La Nina. Now the people are suffering due to extreme drought condition (Brown, 2013). In future, one point will come when people suffer from the severe flood condition. References: Brown, P. (2013).Toxic exposures: contested illnesses and the environmental health movement. Columbia University Press. Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J. (2015).Exposure Assessment in Environmental Epidemiology. Oxford University Press, USA. Peakall, D. B., Shugart, L. R. (Eds.). (2013).Biomarkers: research and application in the assessment of environmental health(Vol. 68). Springer Science Business Media. Robertson, L. W., Hansen, L. G. (Eds.). (2015).PCBs: recent advances in environmental toxicology and health effects. University Press of Kentucky.